Esterilización: avances tecnológicos y normativa vigente

La esterilización y desinfección de instrumentos y elemento clínicos plantea uno de los grandes desafíos de la era actual entre desarrollo tecnológico y protección del paciente al riesgo de contraer infecciones hospitalarias frente al desarrollo creciente de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva, ambulatoria con el uso de alta tecnología . La Norma General Técnica No. 61 sobre “Esterilización y Desinfección de elementos Clínicos” esta reglamentada por un decreto del 27 de noviembre del año 2001.

Esencialmente todo proceso de esterilización debe definir que todo material de uso en pabellón debe estar clasificado de acuerdo al riesgo de Infecciones Intra-Hospitalarias (IIH) para eliminar microorganismos, debe existir una responsabilidad en todo el proceso, todo el procedimiento debe estar normado, debe existir una clasificación de los materiales a esterilizar en función a las diversas características de su material, el material debe ser cuidadosamente revisado y lavado con el objeto de sacar todo material orgánico antes del proceso de esterilización, se debe elegir el método más adecuado de esterilización de acuerdo al material a esterilizador y finalmente debe existir un estricto control y certificación de los procesos de esterilización procediendo a su almacenamiento normado.

En la actualidad se esteriliza por calor húmedo o autoclave, calor seco o pupinel y otros métodos de esterilización son oxido de etileno, vapor de formaldehido, plasma de peróxido de hidrógeno, ácido peracético y en casos especiales sistemas rápidos de esterilización. Todos los procesos de esterilización deben estar ejecutados, controlados y supervisados por personal calificado, se debe llevar un registro físico completo de todos los procesos, los equipos de esterilización deben ser mantenido estrictamente de acuerdo a los protocolos de los fabricantes por servicios técnicos calificados.

El proceso de esterilización en Chile esta bastante normado y el nivel de infecciones intrahospitalarias es prácticamente inexistente, el trabajo del personal especializado es altamente calificado y los procedimientos son muy estrictos. Sin embargo hay un desarrollo tecnológico continuo que implica equipamiento cada vez más sofisticado y de menor tamaño con computadores cada vez más rápidos. Los controles técnicos sobre el equipamiento y el mantenimiento de los mismos debe ser muy estricto con el objeto de que estos estén realmente cumpliendo los ciclos de esterilización. La normativa, muy antigua en relación al desarrollo tecnológico se debe adecuar anualmente con la participación de expertos públicos y privados.

 

Ing. Jaime Calderón Riveros
Santiago, Septiembre de 2010

13 comentarios en “Esterilización: avances tecnológicos y normativa vigente

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