Historia del Láser en Chile

Se define la palabra laser de la primeras palabras en inglés de “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emision of Radiation” es decir “amplificación de la luz por emisión estimulada de radiación”. Técnicamente el principio del láser es simple, cuya aspectos teóricos fueron planteados por Einstein en 1918, que consiste en activar átomos en un resonador óptico que tiene dos espejos uno de los cuales es parcialmente transparente que al ser activados cotinuamente emite una luz con caracterícticas especiales: monocromático, coherente y colimado.  Como todo avance tecnológico sus aplicaciones comenzaron en el campo militar y posteriormente en la industria y la medicina.

Las primeras aplicaciones del láser en medicina están en el campo oftalmológico desde mediados de los 60 como fotocoagulador en tratar retinopatía diabética en Estados Unidos. En Chile se comenzó a usar esta tecnología en los años 80 en el campo oftalmológico en el Hospital Universitario J.J. Aguirre por el Dr. Juan Verdaguer, Premio Nacional de Medicina y en el Hospital de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile con equipos Coherent fabricados en Estados Unidos. En los 80 había enormes expectativas en el uso del láser de alta potencia en tratar tumores de cerebro por los neurocirujanos y se trajo un equipo francés de láser de CO2 a la Clínica Las Condes de Santiago que se usó por el Dr. Luciano Basauri (Q.E.P.D.) , neurocirujano  en tratar tumores cerebrales y Dr. Selim Concha, también neurocirujano.  Posteriormente llegaron los equipos israelíes fabricados por Sharplan de Tel Aviv, el  primero a Punta Arenas, Dr. Leonardo MandujanoClínica Magallanes en ese entonces en que se dictó el Primer Curso de Láser en CO2 por el Dr. Sergio Prado (Q.E.P.D.), otorrinolaringólogo en conjunto con la Universidad de Magallanes con aplicaciones en otorrinolaringología (laringe), ginecología (cuello cervical) y cirugía plástica (tumores).

Posteriormente estos equipos láser de CO2 fueron incorporados al Hospital Militar de Santiago con aplicaciones en otorrinolaringología, proctología, cirugía y Clínica Alemana de Santiago que trajo el primer láser de CO2 de alta potencia (80 watts) para aplicaciones neuroquirúrgicas y vasculares e incorporó además el primer aspirador ultrasónico de la especialidad para tratar tumores cerebrales. En esos años se organizó elPrimer Congreso de Laser en Chile con la visita del Dr. Paul Ascher, destacado neurocirujano austríaco quien junto al Cirujano Plástico Isaac Kaplan de Israel fueron los médicos pioneros en la introducción de esta tecnología de láser de CO2 en los pabellones quirúrgicos en el mundo. Este Congreso  fue trascendente en la introducción de esta tecnología en Chile. Posteriormente a fines de los 80 y mediados de los 90 se incorporó al Hospital Militar de Santiago un  fotocoagulador de retina Sharplan al Hospital Militar de Santiago cuyo Jefe era el Dr. José Miguel Ried y el equipo era usado por médicos del Hospital del Salvador de Santiago encabezados por el Dr. José Espíldora  y su equipo .A mediados de los 90 la oftalmología chilena comenzó a operar exponencialmente  cirugía de cataratas donde uno de los problemas post-operatorios es la   capsuloptomía posterior que necesariamente debía ser tratada con laser Nd-Yag pulsado y los primeros equipos fueron incorporados por el Hospital Naval de Valparaíso en ese entonces (Nd-Yag  Sharplan 702)  y por el Dr.  Carlos Eggers  (Zeiss) con posterioridad al Congreso Oftalmológico el año 1996. Estos mismos Nd-Yag Sharplan oftalmológicos fueron incorporados al Hospital Clínico J.J. Aguirre (posteriormente cambiado por el primer equipo japonés Nidek), por la Fundación Oftalmológica Los Andes , Instituto Oftalmológico IOPA, Hospital Van Burén de Valparaíso.

El primer proyecto público de un laser para retinopatía diabética fue desarrollado por el Dr. Sergio Morales, posteriormente Presidente de la Sociedad Oftalmológica, en elHospital Barros Luco de Santiago con un equipo Sharplan  y posteriormente el Hospital del Salvador con equipos americanos Coherent para retinopatía diabética y capsuloptomía posterior, el Hospital Carlos Van Burén de Valparaíso con equipos franceses Biophisics. A mediados de los 90 con la visita del Dr. Eviatar Moriel de Jerusalén se desarrollo en conjunto con la Clínica Avansalud de Providencia el Primer Curso de Láser en Urología con equipos Nd-Yag Sharplan . Por la gestión del Dr. Martín Zilic de Concepción con la Universidad Católica de Lovaina se desarrolló en Concepción en conjunto con el Hospital Clínico Regional y la Facultad de Medicina de Concepciónel primer curso de “Laser en Ginecología” con el Dr. Jackes Donnez, Jefe del Departamento de Ginecología de la Universidad Católica de Lovaina, que fue un aporte trascendente a la introducción de esta tecnología en la ginecología chilena y el primer curso de “Laser en Cirugía” con el Dr. P.J. Kestens. Posteriormente se desarrollarlo el primer curso de “Laser en Otorrinolaringología” por el Dr. Juan Arrau (Q.E.P.D)   en laClínica Las Nieves de ese entonces (hoy Clínica Lo Curro) con la visita de los Catedráticos Españoles Dr. Agustín del Cañizo de la Universidad de Salamanca y Juan Comas. En laUniversidad Católica de Santiago, Departamento de Otorrinolaringología, la Dra. Ximena Fonseca desarrollo el primer curso de “Laser en Uvuloplastía” con la visita del Dr. Frank Astor  Jefe del Departamento Otorrinolaringología de Cleveland Clinics.  A mediados de los 90, los oftalmólogos incorporan los primeros  Láser en Cirugía Refractiva cuyo pionero fue el Dr. Eusebio García de la Clínica Providencia de Santiago  con un equipo Summit y Dr. Claudio Yaluff  y su equipo en  Clínica Luis Pasteur de Santiago con un equipo japonés Nidek.  Posteriormente esta tecnología ha tenido un exponencial desarrollo y fue incorporada por todos los Centros Oftalmológicos de Chile entre otrosFundación Oftalmológica los AndesInstituto Oftalmológico IOPA, Centro Oftalmológico Carreño, Dr. Mario Hernandez del Instituto Oftalmológico de Magallanes  en Punta Arenas, Dra. Wynifred Trivick de Clínica Oftalmológica Mas Visión de Antofagasta entre otros con una variedad de equipos como  Schwind, BauschLomb, Allegretto entre otros.

A fines de los 90 y en los 2000 la tecnología láser tiene un importante avance en medicina con nuevos avances técnicos que hace de los equipos más pequeños y de fácil uso ampliando el campo a otras aplicaciones médicas. Así se incorpora esta tecnología a la Cirugía Plástica, Dermatología y Cirugía Vascular. En este período el Dr. Vicente de Carolis incorpora esta tecnología en tratar arrugas y cicatrices con láser fraccionado Palomar de Estados Unidos y Erbium de la Compañía Sharplan de Israel, el dermatólogo Dr. Victor Hugo Correa, pionero de la especialidad,  dicta varios cursos de láser e incorpora Nd-Yag  Sciton de 1064 nm  y tecnología incorporada posteriormente por el Dr. Gonzalo PantojaClínica Alemana de Temuco, Dr Juan Gubelin, Clínica Las Condes con Láser Fraxel.  Aparecen los láser de CO2 fraccionados usados en rejuvenecimiento estético, tecnología incorporada en la Clínica lo Curro, Dr. Rigoberto Parra de Antofagasta y últimamente la Clínica Magallanes de Punta Arenas por la Dra. Fernanda Deichler, cirujano plástico. En el área vascular el Dr. Alvaro Orrego de Viña del Mar, Presidente de la Sociedad de Flebelogogía,  incorpora equipos Palomar Starlux 500 con láser Nd-Yag 1064, muy avanzado láser en tratar arañas vasculares. Este mismo equipo estuvo  en uso en Clínica Arauco de Santiago por Dr. Isaac Tellias y su equipo.  En los últimos años el dermatólogo  Dr. Victor Hugo Correa, Vitaclinic de Santiago, incorpora  la tecnología  diodo Vectus  al igual que el cirujano plástico Dr. José Luis Monardez,Centro Ceys  y varios Centros Estéticos como la Dra. Carolina Rocha de Concepción con láser Q-swith y Diodo. La tecnología de láser fraccionado se incorpora definitivamente al campo dermato-estético en tratar arrugas, estrías, rejuvenecimiento. Aparecen nuevas tecnologías más eficientes como los diodo con diversas longitudes de onda (Alexandrita, Diodo, Nd-Yag) que permite trabajar en todo tipo de piel que son incorporados en la Clínica Magallanes de Punta Arenas y diversos centros de la especialidad y los láser de CO2 fraccionado para rejuvenecimiento vaginal

El año 2017 hicimos una Donación al Museo Médico del Hospital Van Burén de Valparaíso del primer equipo israelí en láser de CO2 que existió en Chile que constituye un hito en la introducción esta tecnología en la medicina chilena lo que nos da una enorme satisfacción profesional de nuestro trabajo, quedando al servicio de la comunidad como documento histórico.

 

Ing. Jaime Calderon Riveros

Santiago, septiembre 2017

24 comentarios en “Historia del Láser en Chile

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